This is the service with which most of the older members of the congregation will have grown up, either in its original form or the Canadian revisions of 1918 and 1959. The prayer book of 1552 lasted only for a few months. Elizabeth I followed her step-brother, Edward VI, in 1553 and a third prayer book was introduced in 1559. On the whole it was closer to the first book of 1549. In the latter part of Charles I's reign Archbishop William Laud (1573-1645) sought to bring about reforms intended to add to the dignity of worship. The altar remained in its traditional position against the east wall, usually surmounted by a cross or crucifix and two candles. Altar rails were erected to protect it at which the people knelt to receive the sacrament.
Charles I was martyred in 1649 and until 1660, the Commonwealth period, England was under the dominance of the Puritans. The use of the Prayer Book was forbidden. When King Charles II came to the throne at the Restoration in 1660, the church authorities were in no mood to make concessions. A new prayer book was issued in 1662 which was similar to its predecessors. It was still essentially a medieval book in which the Holy Communion was celebrated by the priest and the people had little active part. Much of the penitential emphasis of the 1552 book remained as did the abrupt ending to the consecration prayer.
Interpretations in the use of the book varied widely. Some people tried to obey the rubric directing the priest to stand at the north side by celebrating from the north end. Others objected to the surplice and preferred the black grown. The ecclesiastical or academic gown became the norm for preaching and remained in some places until the 1920s. Coloured stoles dropped out of use in England at the time of the Reformation and were not restored until the middle of the nineteenth century.
The Prayer Book of 1662 was the basis of most overseas prayer books, including the Canadian books of 1918 and 1962. The Prayer Books of the Episcopal Church in the USA, 1789, 1892, and 1928 have followed the Scottish book of 1637. The Alternate Service Book was introduced by the Church of England in 1980. It can hardly be said that the Prayer Book is unchanging and unchangeable.
* So many as intend to be partakers of the holy Communion shall signify their names to the Curate, at least some time the day before.
* And if any of those be an open and notorious liver, or have done any wrong to his neighbours by word or deed, so that the congregation be thereby offended; the Curate having knowledge thereof, shall call him and advertise him, that in any wise he presume not to come to the Lord's Table, until he have openly declared himself to have truly repented, and amended his former naughty life, that the congregation may thereby be satisfied which before were offended; and that he have recompensed the parties to whom he hath done wrong; or at least declare himself to be in full purpose to do so, as soon as he conveniently may.
* The same order shall the Curate use with those betwixt whom he perceiveth malice and hatred to reign; not suffering them to be partakers of the Lord's Table, until he know them to be reconciled. And if one of the parties at variance be content to forgive from the bottom of his heart all that the other hath trespassed against him, and to make Amends for that he himsestill in his frowardness and malice: the Minister in that case ought to admit the penitent person to the holy Communion, and not him that is obstinate. Provided that every Minister so repelling any, as is specified in this, or the next precedent Paragraph of this Rubric, shall be obliged to give an account of the same to the Ordinary within fourteen days after at the farthest. And the Ordinary shall proceed against the offending person according to the Canon.
* The Table having at the Communion time a fair white linen cloth upon it, shall stand in the body of the Church, or in the chancel, where Morning prayer and Evening prayer be appointed to be said, And the Priest standing at the north side of the Table, shall say the Lord's prayer, with this Collect following.
Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy Name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, in earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, As we forgive them that trespass against us, And lead us not into temptation; But deliver us from evil. Amen.
Almighty God, unto whom all hearts be open, and all desires known, and from whom no secrets are hid: cleanse the thoughts of our hearts, by the inspiration of thy Holy Spirit: that we may perfectly love thee, and worthily magnify thy holy name: through Christ our Lord. Amen.
* Then shall the Priest, turning to the people, rehearse distinctly all the TEN COMMANDMENTS: and the people still kneeling, shall after every Commandment, ask God's mercy for their transgression thereof for the time past, and grace to keep the same for the time to come, as followeth.
Minister. God spake these words, and said: I am the Lord thy God. Thou shalt have none other Gods but me.
Minister. Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven image nor the likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or in the early beneath, nor in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down to them, nor worship them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, and visit the sins of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me, and show mercy unto thousands in them that love me and keep my commandments.
Minister. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
Minister. Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath day. Six days shalt thou labour and do all that thou hast to do, but the seventh day is the sabbath of the lord thy god. In it thou shalt do no manner of work, thou and thy son and thy daughter, thy manservant, thy maidservant, thy cattle, and the stranger that is within thy gates: for in six days the lord made heaven and earth, the Sea and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day. Wherefore the Lord blessed the seventh day and hallowed it.
Minister. Honour thy father and mother, that thy days may be long in the land which the lord thy god giveth thee.
Minister. Thou shalt do no murder.
Minister. Thou shalt not commit adultery.
Minister. Thou shalt not steal.
Minister. Thou shalt not bear false witness against they neighbour.
Minister. Thou shalt not covet they neighbour's house. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his servant, nor his maid, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is his.
R. Lord, have mercy upon us, and write all these thy laws in ourhearts we beseech thee.
* Then shall follow the two Collects: one for the Ruler (King or Queen) , the Priest standing as before, and saying: Let us pray.
* Then shall be said the Collect of the Day.
* Immediately after the Collects the Priest shall read the Epistle saying: * The Epistle is written in the ... Chapter of the Epistle of ... beginning at the ... Verse.
And the Epistle ended he shall say, Here endeth the Epistle.
Then shall he read the Gospel (the people all standing up), saying: The holy Gospel is written in the ... chapter of ... beginning at the ... verse:
* And the Gospel ended, shall be sung or said the Creed following, the people still standing, as before.
I Believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible, And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God. Begotten of the Father before all worlds. God of God. Light of Light. Very God of Very God. Begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; by whom all things were made. Who for us men, and for our salvation came down from heaven. And was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary: And was made man. And was crucified also for us: under Pontius Pilate, he suffered and was buried. And the third day he rose again, according to the Scriptures. And ascended into heaven: and sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he shall come again in glory to judge both the quick and the dead: whose kingdom shall have no end. And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of life: who proceedeth from the Father and the Son. Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified: who spake by the Prophets. And I believe one holy catholick and apostolick Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins. And I look for the resurrection of the dead. And the life of the world to come. Amen.
* Then the Curate shall declareu nto the people what Holy-days, or Fasting-days, are in the Week following to be observed. And then also (if occasion be) shall notice be given of the Communion; and Briefs, Citations, and Excommunications read. And nothing shall be proclaimed or published in the Church, duringthe time of Divine Service, but by the Minister: nor by him anything, but what is prescribed in the Rules of this Book, or enjoined by the King or Queen, or by the Ordinary of the place.
* They shall follow the Sermon, or one of the Homilies already set forth, or hereafter to be set forth, by authority.
The Flesh and the Spirit
by Jeremy Taylor.
* Then shall the Priest return to the Lord's Table, and begin the Offertory, saying one or more of these Sentences following, as he thinketh most convenient at his discretion.
Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.
Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon the earth, where the rust and moth doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal: But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither rust nor moth doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal.
Blessed be the man that provideth for the sick and needy, the Lord shall deliver him in the time of trouble.
* Whilst these Sentences are in reading, the Deacons, Churchwardens or other fit person appointed for that purpose, shall receive the Alms for the Poor, and other devotions of the people, in a decent bason to be provided by the Parish for that purpose; and reverently bring it to the Priest, who shall humbly present and place it upon the Holy Table.
* And when there is a Communion, the Priest shall then place upon the Table so much Bread and Wine, as he shall think sufficient. After which done, the Priest shall say,
Almighty and everliving God, which by thy holy Apostle hast taught us to make prayers and supplications, and to give thanks for all men. We humble beseech thee most mercifully to accept our alm and oblations and to receive these our prayers, which we offer unto thy divine Majesty, beseeching thee to inspire continually the universal church with the spirit of truth, unity, and concord: And grant that all that do confess thy holy name, may agree in the truth of thy holy word, and live in unity and godly love.
We beseech thee also to save and defend all Christian Kings, Princes, and Governors, and specially thy servant, Elizabeth our Queen, that under her we may be godly and quietly governed: and grant unto her whole council, and to all that be put in authority under her, that they may truly and indifferently minister justice, to the punishment of wickedness and vice, and to the maintenance of God's true religion and virtue.
Give grace O heavenly father to all Bishops and Curates, that they may both by their life and doctrine set forth thy holy word, and rightly and duly administer thy holy Sacraments: and to all thy people give thy heavenly grace, and especially to this congregation here present, that with meek heart and due reverence they may hear and receive thy holy word, truly serving thee in holiness and righteousness all the days of their life. And we most humbly beseech thee of thy goodness (O Lord) to comfort and succour all them, which in this transitory life be in trouble, sorrow, need, sickness, or any other adversity: Grant this, O father, for Jesus Christs sake, our only mediator and advocate. Amen.
Dearly beloved in the Lord: ye that mind to come to the holy Communion of the body and blood of our saviour Christ, must consider what St. Paul writeth to the Corinthians, how he exhorteth all persons diligently to try and examine themselves, before they presume to eat of that bread,and drink of that cup: for as the benefit is great, if with a truly penitent heart and lively faith, we receive that holy Sacrament (for then we spiritually eat the flesh of Christ, and drink his blood, then we dwell in Christ and Christ in us, we be one with Christ and Christ with us;) so is the danger great if we receive the same unworthily. For then we be guilty of the body and blood of Christ our saviour. We eat and drink our own damnation, not considering the Lord's body. We kindle God's wrath against us, we provoke him to plague us with divers diseases, and sundry kinds of death.
Therefore, if any of you be a blasphemer of God, an hinderer or slanderer of his word, an adulterer, or be in malice or envy, or in any other form of grievous crime, bewail your sins, and come not to that holy Table: lest after the taking of that holy Sacrament, the Devil enter into you, as he entered into Judas, and fill you full of all iniquities, and bring you to destruction, both of body and soul. Judge therefore yourselves (brethren) that ye be not judged of the Lord. Repent you truly for your past sins [and] have a lively and steadfast faith in Christ our saviour. Amen your lives, and be in perfect charity with all men, so that ye be meet partakers of these holy mysteries. And above all things, ye must give most humble and hearty thanks to God the father, the son, and the holy ghost, for the redemption of the world by the death and passion of our Saviour Christ, both God and man, who did humble himself, even to the death upon the Cross for us miserable sinners, which lay in darkness and shadow of death, that he might make us the children of God, and exalt us to everlasting life.
And to that end we should always remember the exceeding great love of our Master, and only Saviour Jesus Christ, thus dying for us, and the innumerable benefits, (which by his precious blood-shedding) he hath obtained for us, he hath instituted and ordained holy mysteries, as pledges of his love,and continual remembrance of his death, to our great and endless comfort.
To him therefore, with the father and the holy ghost, let us give (as we are most bounden) continual thanks: submitting ourselves wholly to his holy will and pleasure, and studying to serve him in true holiness and righteousness, all the days of our life. Amen.
* There were also two other exhortations, one to be read if the Priest saw the "people negligent to come" to the Sacrament and the other "at the time of the celebration."
* Then shall the Priest say to them that come to receive the holy Communion.
You that do truly and earnestly repent you of your sins, and be in love and charity with your neighbours, and intend to lead a new life, following the commandments of God, and walking from henceforth in his holy ways: draw near and take this holy Sacrament to your comfort, make your humble confession to almighty God, before this congregation here gathered together in his name, meekly kneeling upon your knees.
* Then shall this general confession be said, in the name of all those that are minded to receive the Holy Communion, either by one of them, or by one of the ministers, or by the Priest himself, all kneeling humbly upon their knees.
Almighty God, father of our Lord Jesus Christ, maker of all things, judge of all men, we acknowledge and bewail our manifold sins and wickedness, which we from time to time, most grievously have committed by thought, word, and deed, against thy divine majesty, provoking most justly thy wrath and indignation against us, we do earnestly repent and are heartily sorry for these our misdoings, the remembrance of them is grievous unto us, the burden of them is intolerable: have mercy upon us, have mercy upon us, most merciful father, for thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ's sake, forgive us all that is past, and grant that we may ever hereafter, serve and please thee in newness of life, to the honour and glory of thy name: through Jesus Christ our Lord.
Almighty God, our heavenly father, who of his great mercy hath promised forgiveness of sins to all them, which with hearty repentance and true faith, turn unto him: have mercy upon you, pardon and deliver you from all your sins, confirm and strengthen you in all goodness, and bring you to everlasting life: through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Come unto me all that travail and be heavy laden, and I shall refresh you. So God loved the world that he gave his only begotten son, to the end that all that believe in him, should not perish, but have life everlasting.
This is a true saying, and worthy of all men to be received, that Jesus Christ came into this world to save sinners.
If any man sin, we have an advocate with the father, Jesus Christ the righteous, and he is the propitiation for our sins.
Priest. Lift up your hearts. People: We lift them up unto the Lord.
Priest. Let us give thanks unto our Lord God. People. It is meet and right so to do.
Priest. It is very meet, right, and our bounden duty, that we should at all times and in all places give thanks unto thee: O Lord holy Father almighty, everlasting God:
Therefore with Angels and Archangels, and with all the holy company of heaven we laud and magnify thy glorious name, evermore praising thee, and saying,
Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts. Heaven and earth are full of thy glory. Glory be to thee, O Lord, most high.
We do not presume to come to this thy table (O merciful Lord) trusting in our own righteousness, but in thy manifold and great mercies: we be not worthy so much as to gather up the crumbs under thy table: but thou art the same lord whose property is always to have mercy: Grant us therefore (gracious lord) so to eat the flesh of thy dear son Jesus Christ, and to drink his blood, that our sinful bodies may be made clean by his body, and our souls washed through his most precious blood. Amen.
Almighty God our heavenly father, which of thy tender mercy didst give thine only Son Jesus Christ to suffer death upon the cross for our redemption, who made there (by his one oblation once offered) a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world, and did institute, and in his holy Gospel command us to, celebrate a perpetual memory of that his precious death, until his coming again. Hear us O merciful father we beseech thee; and grant that we receiving thy creatures of bread and wine, according to thy son our Saviour Jesus Christ's holy institution, in remembrance of his death and passion, may be partakers of his most blessed body and blood: who in the same night that he was betrayed, took bread,(1) and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and gave it to his disciples saying: Take, eat, this is my body which is given for you, do this in remembrance of me. Likewise after supper he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying: drink ye all of this, for this is my blood of the new Testament, which is shed for you and for many, for remission of sins: do this as oft as you shall drink it, in remembrance of me.
* Then shall the minister receive the Communion in both kinds himself, and next deliver it to other ministers, if any be there present (that they may help the chief minister,) and after to the people in their hands kneeling.
The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee, pthy body and soul unto everlasting life. Take and eat this, in remembrance that Christ died for thee, and feed on him in thy heart by faith, with thanksgiving.
The Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was shed for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life. Drink this in remembrance that Christ's blood was shed for thee, and be thankful.
* Then shall the Priest say the Lord's Prayer, the people repeating after him every petition.
Our Father, which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, in earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, As we forgive them that trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation; But deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, The power, and the glory, For ever and ever. Amen.
O Lord and heavenly Father, we thy humble servants entirely desire thy fatherly goodness mercifully to accept this ioursacrifice of praise and thsnksgiving; most humbly beseeching thee to grant, that by the merits and deathof thy Son Jesus Christ, and through faith in his blood, we and thy whole Church may obtain remission of our sins, and all other benefits of his passion. And here we offer and present untothee, O Lord, ourselves, our souls and bodies, to be a reasonable, holy, and lively sacrifice unto thee, that all we, who are partakers of this holy Communion, may be fulfuilled with thy grace and heavenly benediction. And although we be unworthy, through our manifold sins, to offer unto thee any sacrifice, yet we beseech thee to,accept this our bounden duty and service; not weighing our merits, but pardoning our offences, through Jesus Christ our Lord; by whom, and with whom, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, all honour and glory be unto thee, O Father Almighty, world without end, Amen.
Almighty and everliving God, we most heartily thank thee, for that thou hast vouchsafed to feed us, which have duly received these holy Mysteries, with the spiritual food of the most precious body and blood of thy son, our saviour Jesus Christ, and dost assure of thy favour and goodness toward us, and that we be very members incorporate in thy Mystical body, which is the blessed company of all faithful people, and heirs, through hope, of thy everlasting kingdom, by the merits of the most precious death and passion of thy dear son. We now most humbly beseech thee, O heavenly father, so to assist us with thy grace, that we may continue in that holy fellowship, and do all such good works, as thou has prepared for us to walk in: through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom with thee and the holy ghost, be all honour and glory, world without end. Amen.
Glory be to God on high, and in earth peace, goodwill toward men. We praise thee, We bless thee. We worship thee. We glorify thee. We give thanks to thee for thy great glory. O Lord God, heavenly King, God the Father Almighty. O Lord, the only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ: O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us: Thou that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us: Thou that takest away the sins of the world, receive our prayer. Thou that sittest at the right hand of God the Father, have mercy upon us: For thou only art holy. Thou only art the Lord. Thou only, O Christ, with the Holy Ghost, art most high in the glory of God the Father. Amen.
The peace of GOD which passeth all understanding keep your hearts and minds in the knowledge and love of GOD, and of his son Jesus Christ our Lord: and the blessing of God Almighty, the father, the son, and the holy Ghost, be amongst you and remain with you always. Amen.
* Upon the holy days, if there be no Communion, shall be said all that is appointed at the Communion, until the end of the Homily, concluding with the general prayer, 'For the whole state of Christ's church militant here in earth:' and one or more of these Collects ... as occasion shall serve.
* And there shall be no celebration of the lord's Supper, except there be a good number to communicate with the Priest, according to his discretion.
* And if there be not above twenty persons in the Parish of discretion to receive the Communion; yet there shall be no Communion, except four or three at the last, communicate with the Priest.
* And in Cathedral and Collegiate churches, where there be many Priests and Deacons, they shall all receive the Communion with the minister every Sunday at the least except they have a reasonable cause to the contrary.
* And to take away the superstition, which any person hath, or might have in the bread and wine, it shall suffice that the bread be such, as is usual to be eaten at the Table with other meals, but the best and purest wheat bread, that conveniently may be gotten. And if any of the bread remain, the Curate shall have it to his own use.
* The bread and wine shall be provided by the Curate, and the churchwardens, at the charges of the parish, and the Parish shall be discharged of such sums of money, or other duties which hitherto they have paid for the same, by order of their houses every Sunday.
* And note, that every Parishioner shall communicate, at least three times in the year; of which, Easter to be one; and shall also receive the Sacraments and other rites, according to the order in this Book appointed. And yearly at Easter, every Parishioner shall reckon with his Parson, Vicar or Curate, or his, or their deputy or deputies, and pay to them or him all Ecclesiastical duties, accustomably due, then and at that time to be paid.
* After the Divine Service is ended, the money given at the Offertory shall be disposed of to such pious and charitable uses, as the Minister and Churchwardens shall think fit. Wherein, if they disagree, it shall be disposed of as the Ordinary shall appoint.
* Whereas it is ordained in this Office for the Administration of the Lord's Supper, that the communicants should receive the same kneeling; (which Order is well meant for a signification of our humble and grateful acknowledgement of the benefits of christ therein given to all worthy Receivers, and for the avoiding of such profanation and disorder in the holy Communion, as might otherwise ensue) yet lest the same kneeling should by any persons, either out of ignorance or infirmity, or out of malice and obstinacy, be misconstrued and depraved; It is here declared: that thereby no adoration is intended, or ought to be done, either unto the Sacramental Bread or Win there bodily received, or unto any Corporeal Presence of christ's natural Flesh and Blood. For the Sacramental Bread and Wine remain still in their very Natural Substances, and therefore may not be adored (for that were Idolatry, to be abhorred of all faithful Christians) and the natural Body and Blood of our Saviour Christ are in Heaven, and not here; it being against the truth of Christ's natural Body to be at one time in more places than one.
1. The manuel acts are specified.